Glenoid loosening after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) remains a major concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of radiolucent lines (RLLs) after TSA performed with modern glenoid bone preparation and cement techniques for keeled-back glenoid components. One hundred ten consecutive patients with osteoarthritis were included in this study. Patients had undergone primary TSA with a keeled-back glenoid component. Mean age was 64.0 years (SD, 10.6 years; range, 27-91 years). Two independent, blinded observers assessed the initial postoperative radiographs for RLLs using the Molé, Torchia, and Franklin classification systems. On 93 (84.5%) of the 110 radiographs, there was no evidence of RLLs; on the other 17 radiographs (15.5%), there was evidence of RLLs. Mean Torchia score was 0.02 (SD, 0.13) on the anteroposterior view and 0.14 (SD, 0.34) on the axillary lateral view. Mean Franklin score was 0.02 (SD, 0.13) on the anteroposterior view and 0.21 (SD, 0.62) on the axillary lateral view. Incidence of early RLLs in keeled-back glenoid components prepared with modern cement and bone compaction techniques was 15.5%, similar to what other investigators have reported for pegged-back glenoid components.